Scientific name – Ficus religiosa

Family – Moraceae

Ficus religiosa or sacred fig is a species of fig native to the Indian subcontinent and Indochina that belongs to Moraceae, the fig or mulberry family. It is also known as the bodhi tree, pimple tree, peepul tree, peepal tree, pipala tree, ashvattha tree (in India and Nepal)The sacred fig is considered to have a religious significance in three major religions that originated on the Indian subcontinent, Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainism.


Ficus religiosa is a large dry season-deciduous or semi-evergreen tree up to 30 metres (98 ft) tall and with a trunk diameter of up to 3 metres (9.8 ft).
The leaves are cordate in shape with a distinctive extended drip tip; they are 10–17 centimetres (3.9–6.7 in) long and 8–12 centimetres (3.1–4.7 in) broad, with a 6–10 centimetres (2.4–3.9 in) petiole. The fruits are small figs 1–1.5 centimetres (0.39–0.59 in) in diameter, green ripening to purple.

F. religiosa has a lifespan ranging between 900 and 1,500 years. The Jaya Sri Maha Bodhi tree in the city of Anuradhapura in Sri Lanka is estimated to be more than 2,250 years old.

Rasa : kashaya, madhura
Guna : guru, ruksha
Virya : shita
Vipaka : katu
Dosh karma-Kaphapittahara
Karma-vranaropana (wound-healing), sothahara (anti-inflammatory), mutrasangrahaniya (treat excessive micturition), shukrala (aphrodisiac), pramehahara (anti-diabetic), yonirogahara (useful to treat vaginal infections)
Chemical composition
The stem bark of F. religiosa are reported phytoconstituents of phenols, tannins, steroids, alkaloids and flavonoids, β-sitosteryl-D-glucoside, vitamin K, n-octacosanol, methyl oleanolate, lanosterol, stigmasterol, lupen-3-oneThe active constituent from the root bark F. religiosa was found to be β-sitosteryl-D-glucoside, which showed a peroral hypoglycemic effect in fasting and alloxan-diabetic rabbits and in pituitary-diabetic rats. The fruits contain 4.9% protein having the essential amino acids, isoleucine, and phenylalanine] The seeds contain phytosterolin, β-sitosterol, and its glycoside, albuminoids, carbohydrate, fatty matter, coloring matter, caoutchoue 0.7–5.1%.F. religiosa fruits contain flavonols namely kaempeferol, quercetin, and myricetin Leaves and fruits contain carbohydrate, protein, lipid, calcium, sodium, potassium, and phosphorus.


  1. Diarrhea
    Peepal is an effective herb for controlling diarrhea. Diarrhea, known as Atisar in Ayurveda, is caused due to improper food, impure water, toxins, mental stress and Agnimandya (weak digestive fire). All these factors are responsible for aggravating Vata. Aggravated Vata brings fluid in the intestine from various tissues from the body and mixes with the stool which leads to loose, watery motions or Diarrhea. Using Peepal bark powder helps to control the loss of water from the body and makes the stool thicker due to its Kashaya (astringent) and Sangrahi (absorbent) properties.
  2. Menorrhagia
    Menorrhagia or heavy menstrual bleeding is known as Raktapradar or excessive secretion of menstrual blood. This is due to an aggravated Pitta dosha. Peepal bark balances an aggravated Pitta and controls heavy menstrual bleeding or menorrhagia. This is due to its Sita (cold) and Kashaya (astringent) properties.
  3. Constipation
    Constipation is caused due to an aggravated Vata and Pitta dosha. This can be due to the frequent consumption of junk food, excess intake of coffee or tea, sleeping late at night, stress and depression. All these factors aggravate Vata and Pitta leading to constipation. Peepal leaves juice or pill helps to manage constipation because of its Rechana (laxative) nature. It helps to expel waste products from the large intestine easily.

The trunk of this tree is used by farmers as a soil leveller. After seed harvesting, the rectangular trunk is connected to tractors and levels the soil.