Palash is a deciduous tree native to the Indian subcontinent. It typically reaches a height of 15 to 25 meters. The leaves are trifoliate, with three leaflets, each about 10-15 cm long, and they drop in the dry season. The plant thrives in a variety of habitats, from dry, rocky slopes to moist riverbanks. The striking flowers are bright orange to deep red, appearing in clusters, and they bloom in spring. The roots are used in traditional medicine.
The chemical constituents of Palash are diverse and include flavonoids like quercetin and kaempferol, which exhibit antioxidant properties and contribute to its vibrant red color. Tannins, another group of compounds found in Palash, have astringent qualities and may have medicinal uses. The plant also contains sterols, which are essential components of plant cell membranes. Additionally, glycosides are present, which can have various biological activities. One notable compound in Palash is butein, responsible for its distinctive red hue and believed to possess antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.