Botanical name :Piper longum
Family :Piperaceae


Piper longum, sometimes called Indian long pepper or pippali, is a flowering vine in the family Piperaceae, cultivated for its fruit, which is usually dried and used as a spice and seasoning. Long pepper has a taste similar to, but sweeter and less pungent than, that of its close relative Piper nigrum – from which black, green and white pepper are obtained.The fruit of the pepper consists of many minuscule fruits – each about the size of a poppy seed – embedded in the surface of a flower spike that closely resembles a hazel tree catkin. Like Piper nigrum, the fruits contain the pungent compound piperine, which contributes to their pungency.

Chemical composition:

Eight compounds are present in Piper longum and their potential vascular relaxant activities,the access of Rosin and Piperchabaoside in the medicinal plant. The vessel tension studies showed that Piperine,(2E,4E,14Z)-N-isobutyleicosa-2,4,14-trienamide, Piperlonguminineexerted significant inhibitory effects on PE-induced mesenteric artery vasoconstriction. Furthermore, Calcium Imaging studies were applied to observe the effect of Piperine on the intracellular calcium in mesenteric artery smooth muscle cells (MASMCs). Piperine was observed to promote the influx of extracellular calcium in MASMCs, and via an endothelium-independent mechanism involving Ca2+ entry. Piper longum L. might have a great potential to be further studied as a vascular relaxant, even to be a drug candidate of anti-hypertension.
Properties: it is considered “tridoshic,” meaning that it brings benefits to all three dosha types; Vata, Pitta, and Kapha.Of all the herbs and spices, Pippalimoola (long pepper root) is best in promoting digestion, relieving ama (indigestion) and bloating.Pippali showcases Katu (i.e. pungent) Rasa. It is blessed with Laghu (light) and Tikshna (i.e. piercing) gunas. It has UshnaVirya (hot potency) and MadhuraVipaka (sweet metabolic property).
• The fruits’ essential oil had insecticidal and insect repellent properties.
• piperidine alkaloids (pipernonaline and piperoctadecalidine), obtained from P. longum, had insecticidal action

  1. Antifungal Activity
    • P. longum L. has fungicidal properties in the essential oil of the fruits.
    • Pipernonaline, a piperidine alkaloid, has a potential fungicidal effect against P. recondita.2 11
  2. Antimicrobial Activity
    .P. longum extracts have shown antimicrobial activity against bacterial pathogens such as S. albus, S. typhi, P. aeruginosa, E. coli, and B. megaterium, as well as one fungus, A. niger.2
  3. Benefits.
    • In addition, the severity of caecal wall ulceration was lessened.
    • The fruit and root of P. longum have an approximately similar antiamoebic effect.2
  4. Immunomodulatory Activity
    • The fruits’ alcoholic extract and piperine were proven to be cytotoxic. 100% giardicidal activity was found in an aqueous extract of P. longum fruit powder. P. longum protects from stress generated by the environment.
  5. Anti-diabetic Effects
    As per animal studies, oral administration of dried fruits of Pippali has been proven to have strong anti-hyperglycemic, anti-lipid peroxidative, and antioxidant properties.2
  6. Antioxidant Benefits
    A combination of different Piper spices, salts, and herbs shows antioxidant activity. Piper nigrum has the highest antioxidant activity, followed by piper longum.2
    8.Cardioprotective Agent:
    • As per animal studies, piperine, pipernonaline, piperoctadecalidine, and piper longumine, all isolated from the fruits of P. longum, showed dose-dependent inhibitory activity on platelet aggregation induced by collagen arachidonic acid (AA) and platelet-activating factor (PAF), except for thrombin-induced platelet aggregation.